Prof. Saini elaborated several facets of the green revolution from its emergence in India to its after- effects which includes both its positive and negative consequences on the environment. He explained that one of the conditions that led to the adoption of green revolution was the huge dependence of Indian agriculture on rainfall. He laid emphasis on three basic requirements for growing hybrid seeds- continuous supply of water, alternation of chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizers and use of insecticides. He considered these three factors as a major threat to the environment. He also described the negative impacts of the overuse of water for irrigation purposes and adoption of exotic varieties such as rice as a major crop in Punjab. Also crop pattern shifting and crop intensification led to the overuse of water resources due to which many areas of Punjab has been quated as the dark zones including Mansa, Mohali etc. This has led to empty spaces beneath earth surface which are vulnerable to earthquakes as they are under continuous subsidence at the rate of 5 cm per year as per ISRO’s report. He mentioned that there are 1.4 million tubewells in Punjab. High horsepower pumps are used by farmers to extract groundwater, which is further depleting the water table.
Students discussed their queries with expert on various groundwater level and other related issues such as use of RO water and its implications with water utilization, reasons for non implementation of rain harvesting systems in India and why flood water cannot be managed for water deprived states etc. and he explained these with practical examples. Prof. M.S. Saini also motivated students for pursuing studies in basic sciences.